১ম শ্রেণি থেকে পড়াশোনার শেষ অব্দি পর্যন্ত অন্তত স্নাতকোত্তর পর্যায় পর্যন্ত একেকটা শ্রেণী আরেকটার সাথে পারস্পারিক সম্পর্কযুক্ত। একটা আরেকটার ওপর নির্ভর করে।কেউ চাইলেই ৫ম শ্রেণি না পড়ে ৬ষ্ঠ শ্রেণিতে পড়তে পারবে না অথবা প্রাথমিক, মাধ্যমিক বা যেকোন একটা ধাপ বাদ দিয়ে বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে পড়তে পারবে না,এটাই নিয়ম।
আবার প্রত্যেকটা শিশু- কিশোর বড় হয় স্বপ্ন বুনে,স্বপ্নকে লালন করে স্বপ্নকে সত্যি করে তুলতে।এই স্বপ্নে হয়তো কোন বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের সবচেয়ে মেধাবী ছাত্র, রাজনীতিবিদ, Continue reading বুলেটে বিক্ষত স্বপ্ন→
Congress of the United States, the legislature of the United States of America, established under the Constitution of 1789 and separated structurally from the executive and judicial branches of government. It consists of two houses: the Senate, in which each state, regardless of its size, is represented by two senators, and the House of Representatives (seeRepresentatives, House of), to which members are elected on the basis of population. Among the express powers of Congress as defined in the Constitutionare the power to lay and collect taxes, borrow money on the credit of the United States, regulate commerce, coin money, declare war, raise and support armies, and make all laws necessary for the execution of its powers.
Although the two chambers of Congress are separate, for the most part, they have an equal role in the enactment of legislation, and there are several aspects of the business of Congress that the Senate and the House of Representatives share and that require common action. Congress must assemble at least once a year and must agree on the date for convening and adjourning. The date for convening was set in the Constitution as the first Monday in December; however, in the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution the date was changed to January 3. The date for adjournment is voted on by the House and the Senate.
Congress must also convene in a joint session to count the electoral votes for the president and vice president. Although not required by the Constitution, joint sessions are also held when the president or some visiting dignitary addresses both houses.
Of common interest to both houses of Congress are also such matters as government printing, general accounting, and the congressional budget. Congress has established individual agencies to serve these specific interests. Other agencies, which are held directly responsible to Congress, include the Copyright Royalty Tribunal, the Botanic Garden, and the Library of Congress.
The term of Congress extends from each odd-numbered year to the next odd-numbered year. For its annual sessions, Congress developed the committee system to facilitate its consideration of the various items of business that arise. Each house of Congress has a number of standing (permanent) committees and select (special and temporary) committees. Together the two chambers of Congress form joint committees to consider subjects of common interest. Moreover, because no act of Congress is valid unless both houses approve an identical document, conference committees are formed to adjust disputed versions of legislation.
At the beginning of a session, the president delivers a State of the Unionaddress, which describes in broad terms the legislative program that the president would like Congress to consider. Later, the president submits an annual budget message and the report on the economy prepared by the president’s Council of Economic Advisors. Inasmuch as congressional committees require a period of time for preparing legislation before it is presented for general consideration, the legislative output of Congress may be rather small in the early weeks of a session. Legislation not enacted at the end of a session retains its status in the following session of the same two-year Congress.
In terms of legislation, the president may be considered a functioning part of the congressional process. The president is expected to keep Congress informed of the need for new legislation, and government departments and agencies are required to send Congress periodic reports of their activities. The president also submits certain types of treaties and nominations for the approval of the Senate. One of the most important legislative functions of the president, however, is that of signing or vetoingproposed legislation. The president’s veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each chamber of Congress; nevertheless, the influence of the president’s potential power may extend to the procedures of Congress. The possibility that a bill may be vetoed gives the president some influence in determining what legislation Congress will consider initially and what amendments will be acceptable. In addition to these legal and constitutionalpowers, the president has influence as the leader of a political party; party policy both in Congress and among the electorate may be molded by the president.
Although the U.S. Supreme Court has no direct relations with Congress, the Supreme Court’s implied power to invalidate legislation that violates the Constitution is an even stronger restriction on the powers of Congress than the presidential veto. Supreme Court and federal court decisions on the constitutionality of legislation outline the constitutional framework within which Congress can act.
Congress is also affected by representative interest groups, though they are not part of the formal structure of Congress. Lobbyists play a significant role in testifying before congressional hearings and in mobilizing opinion on select issues.
Many of the activities of Congress are not directly concerned with enacting laws, but the ability of Congress to enact law is often the sanction that makes its other actions effective. The general legal theory under which Congress operates is that legal authority is delegated to the president or executive departments and agencies and that the latter, in turn, are legally responsible for their actions. Congress may review any actions performed by a delegated authority; and in some areas of delegated legislation, such as in proposals for governmental reorganization, Congress must indicate approval of specific plans before they go into effect. Congress may also retain the right to terminate legislation by joint action of both houses.
Congress exercises general legal control over the employment of government personnel. Political control may also be exercised, particularly through the Senate’s power to advise and consent to nominations. Neither the Senate nor the House of Representatives has any direct constitutional power to nominate or otherwise select executive or judicial personnel (although in the unusual event that the electoral college fails to select a president and vice president, the two houses, respectively, are expected to do so). Furthermore, Congress does not customarily remove officials. Congress, however, does have the power of impeachment. In such proceedings the impeachment is made by the House of Representatives, and the case is tried before the Senate—a vote of two-thirds of the senators present is required for conviction.
The power to levy and collect taxes and to appropriate funds allows Congress considerable authority in fiscal matters. Although the president has the initial responsibility for determining the proposed level of appropriations, once estimates for the next fiscal year are submitted to Congress, a single budget bill is not enacted, but rather a number of appropriation bills for various departments and agencies are passed during the first six or seven months of a session.
In its nonlegislative capacity, Congress also has the power to initiate amendments to the Constitution, and it must determine whether the states should vote on a proposed amendmentby state legislatures or by special state conventions. Finally, Congress has the right to investigate any subject that affects its powers. Congressional investigating committees may call witnesses and require them to produce information. These committees may also be given the power that persons who deliberately block the legislative process may be charged with contempt of Congress and may be issued warrants for their arrests.
Recently declassified CIA documents seem to confirm the legitimacy of several FBI files about Adolf Hitler, that claimed he escaped Germany after the defeat of the Nazis and fled to South America.
The documents say that in 1955, the CIA’s Western Hemisphere Division (WHD) chief received a secret memo titled “Operational: Adolf Hitler,” from the acting CIA station chief in Venezuela. It pointed out that one of his sources got a tip that Hitler was alive and well in Argentina.
The incredible revelations provide backing to the conclusions that could be drawn from declassified FBI documents that also claimed certain sources said Hitler was in fact living in Argentina.
“CIMELODY,” the title given to acting CIA station chief’s informants, was contacted by Phillip Citroen, a former SS trooper who alleged he was in communication with Hitler, who was living under the name “Adolph Schuttlemayer”: in Colombia, roughly once a month, as he was in Argentina on a trip from Maracaibo working for the Royal Dutch Shipping Company.
Citroen claims Hitler ditched Colombia for the state of Argentina around January 1955, falsely suggesting that a statute of limitations for war crimes was passed.
The CIA files provide the revelation that Citroen informed CIMELODY he had actually taken a photo with Adolf Hitler, including the photograph that ended up in the CIA memo. Hiter is alleged to be on the right in this photo.
After a review of the CIA fies, the WHD chief said Citroen merely a year before reported a group of Nazis was residing in Colombia, who engaged in “idolatry of the Nazi past addressing him as ‘der Fuhrer’ and affording him the Nazi salute and storm trooper adulation,” alluding to Hitler himself.
The WHP chief was again contacted by the station chief days later, engaging in further investigation of whether the claims about Hitler were valid.
Then surprisingly enough, the HPD chief decided to drop further inquiry altogether, reasoning that he felt“enormous efforts could be expended on this matter with remote possibilities of establishing anything concrete.”
The fact that Hitler would be let go should be no surprise to students of true history.
Some of the highest level Nazi war criminals and corporate overlords were set free after WWII. Bayer, Hoescht, and BASF were part of the Nazi chemical monopoly IG Farben.
Figures such as Carl Bosch and Fritz Ter Meer (chief industrialist in charge of concentration camp Auschwitz) were set free after little time, and even went back to Bayer, BASF, and German banks, continuing to influence German society for decades to come. This video explains:
Refugee number could double with 146,000 of the persecuted Muslim minority already fleeing Myanmar’s security forces.
As many as 300,000 Rohingya Muslims could flee violence in northwestern Myanmar to neighbouring Bangladesh, UN officials say, warning of a funding shortfall for emergency food supplies for the desperate refugees.
According to estimates issued by United Nations workers in Bangladesh’s border region of Cox’s Bazar, arrivals since the latest bloodshed started two weeks ago have already reached 146,000.
Numbers are difficult to establish with any certainty because of the turmoil as Rohingya escape operations by Myanmar’s military.
However, UN officials have raised their estimate of the total expected refugees from 120,000 to 300,000, said Dipayan Bhattacharyya, who is Bangladesh spokesman for the World Food Programme (WFP).
“They are coming in nutritionally deprived, they have been cut off from a normal flow of food for possibly more than a month,” he told Reuters news agency. “They were definitely visibly hungry, traumatised.”
The surge of refugees, many sick or wounded, has strained the resources of aid agencies and communities that are already helping hundreds of thousands displaced by previous waves of violence in Myanmar. Many have no shelter, and aid agencies are racing to provide clean water, sanitation and food.
Myanmar accused of laying landmines on Bangladesh border
Bhattacharyya said the refugees were now arriving by boat as well as crossing the land border at numerous points.
Another UN worker in the area cautioned the estimates were not “hard science” given the chaos and lack of access to the area on the Myanmar side, where the military is still conducting its “clearance operation”.
The source added the 300,000 number was probably the worst-case scenario.
The latest violence began when Rohingya insurgents attacked dozens of police posts and an army base. The ensuing clashes and a military counter-offensive killed at least 400 people and triggered the mass exodus of villagers to Bangladesh.
An Al Jazeera producer – on a government-arranged visit in Rakhine state – has visited several villages belonging to both Rohingya and non-Muslims.
“She says she’s seen levels of destruction that are unimaginable. All the villages have been destroyed,” reported Al Jazeera’s Florence Looi from Myanmar’s capital Naypyidaw. “We are hearing reports that fighting is still going on.”
UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric said on Wednesday from New York that WFP is appealing for $11.3m to support the influx of people and those already living in camps. Dujarric described women and children arriving there as “hungry and malnourished”.
The crisis in restive Rakhine state is the biggest to face Myanmar’s leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and her handling of it has been a source of disillusionment among the democracy champion’s former supporters in the West.
In a statement on Wednesday, she blamed “terrorists” for “a huge iceberg of misinformation” on the strife in Rakhine. She made no mention of the Rohingya who have fled.
Myanmar’s National Security Adviser Thaung Tun said the group that attacked 30 police posts two weeks ago is trying to carve out a separate Muslim state from the Buddhist-majority nation, and the armed forces are using maximum restraint in their operations against them.
Based on the prediction that 300,000 could arrive in Bangladesh, WFP calculated it would need $13.3m in additional funding to provide high-energy biscuits and basic rice rations for four months.
Bhattacharyya called for donors to meet the shortfall urgently.
“If they don’t come forward now, we may see that these people would be fighting for food among themselves, the crime rate would go up, violence against women and on children would go up,” he said.
Refugees from Myanmar describe bombs exploding near homes and people burned alive by the army.
Aid officials said relief camps were reaching full capacity as thousands of Rohingya refugees continued to pour into Bangladesh on Sunday fleeing violence in western Myanmar.
Some 73,000 people have crossed the border since violence erupted Aug. 25 in Myanmar’s Rakhine state, said UN High Commissioner for Refugees spokesperson Vivian Tan.
The violence and the exodus began after Rohingya insurgents attacked Myanmar police and paramilitary posts in what they said was an effort to protect their ethnic minority from persecution by security forces in the majority Buddhist country. In response, the military unleashed what it called “clearance operations” to root out the insurgents.
Another aid official said Saturday that more than 50 refugees had arrived with bullet injuries and were moved to hospitals in Cox’s Bazar, on the border with Myanmar. Refugees reaching the Bangladeshi fishing village of Shah Porir Dwip described bombs exploding near their homes and Rohingya being burned alive.
‘The military and extremist Rakhine are burning us, burning us, killing us, setting our village on fire.’– Karim, Rohingya refugee
Both Myanmar’s security officials and Rohingya insurgents are accusing each other of atrocities. The military has said nearly 400 people, most of them insurgents, have died in clashes.
Aid workers said that large numbers of refugees required immediate medical attention as they were suffering from respiratory diseases, infection and malnutrition. The existing medical facilities in the border area were insufficient to cope with the influx and more aid and paramedics were needed, aid workers said.
“We fled to Bangladesh to save our lives,” said a man who only gave his first name, Karim. “The military and extremist Rakhine are burning us, burning us, killing us, setting our village on fire.”
He said Saturday he paid 12,000 Bangladeshi taka, or about $184 Cdn, for each of his family members to be smuggled on a wooden boat to Bangladesh after soldiers killed 110 Rohingya in their village of Kunnapara, near the coastal town of Maungdaw.
“The military destroyed everything. After killing some Rohingya, the military burned their houses and shops,” he said. “We have a baby who is eight days only, and an old woman who is 105.”
Hundreds of buildings burned down
Satellite imagery analyzed by Human Rights Watch shows hundreds of buildings had been destroyed in at least 17 sites across Rakhine state since Aug. 25, including some 700 structures that appeared to have been burned down in just the village of Chein Khar Li, the rights watchdog said.
The government blames the insurgents for burning their own homes and killing Buddhists in Rakhine. Longstanding tension between the Rohingya Muslims and Buddhists erupted in bloody rioting in 2012, forcing more than 100,000 Rohingya into displacement camps, where many still live.
Bangladeshi police said Thursday that three boats carrying refugees had capsized in the Naf River, killing at least 26, including women and children.
Indonesia calls for peace
Indonesia’s president has called for an end to the violence and sent his foreign minister to discuss the Rohingya’s plight with Myanmar’s leader Aung San Suu Kyi.
Indonesia is the world’s most populous Muslim nation.
At a news conference, President Joko (Jokowi) Widodo said he deplores the violence in Rakhine and promised humanitarian assistance.
“Real action is needed, not just statements and condemnations,” he said. “This violence and humanitarian crisis must end.”
Indonesian Foreign Minister Retno Marsudi flew to Myanmar on Sunday afternoon and plans to meet with several government figures including Suu Kyi.
Marsudi will also travel to Bangladesh to inspect Indonesia’s efforts to provide aid to the refugees.
Rohingya children have been beheaded and civilians burned alive, according to witness testimony amid claims that Burma’s military and paramilitary forces are committing “genocide” or a “pogrom” against the Muslim minority in the country’s western Rakhine state.
Around 60,000 refugees are believed to have fled over the country’s western border into Bangladesh in a just a week following a clampdown on Rohingya militants.
The British Foreign Secretary, Boris Johnson, called for the violence to end, saying the treatment of the Rohingya was “besmirching the reputation of Burma”, also known as Myanmar, and appealing to Aung San Suu Kyi to act.
Turkey’s President, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, has gone much further, accusing Burma’s forces of genocide and saying those who turned a blind eye to events were complicit.
Observers believe the number of displaced people is likely to increase. The Burmese military said 400 militants had been killed in clashes with their forces.
Pope Francis defends right of Burma’s RohingyaMuslims to ‘live their faith’
Civilians who escaped gave horrific accounts of violence and destruction by Burmese soldiers and other armed groups.
A man named as Abdul Rahman, 41, said he had survived a five-hour attack on Chut Pyin village.
He told Fortifiy Rights, a charity working in the area, that a group of Rohingya men had been rounded up and detained in a bamboo hut, which was then set on fire.
“My brother was killed, [Burmese soldiers] burned him with the group,” he said.
“We found [my other family members] in the fields. They had marks on their bodies from bullets and some had cuts.
“My two nephews, their heads were off. One was six years old and the other was nine years old. My sister-in-law was shot with a gun.”
Another man from the same village, named as Sultan Ahmed, 27, told the charity: “Some people were beheaded, and many were cut. We were in the house hiding when [armed residents from a neighbouring village] were beheading people.
“When we saw that, we just ran out the back of the house.”
Survivors from other villages in the region also described seeing people being beheaded or having their throats cut.
“We can’t stress enough the urgency of the situation,” said Matthew Smith, head of Fortify Rights.
“পানামা নথি কেলেঙ্কারির মামলায় সুপ্রিম কোর্ট অযোগ্য ঘোষণার পর পদত্যাগ করেছেন পাকিস্তানের প্রধানমন্ত্রী নওয়াজ শরিফ…।”
পানামা পেপার্সে ৪৩ বাংলাদেশিঃ
“পানামা পেপারস কেলেঙ্কারির মাধ্যমে বিশ্বব্যাপী অর্থ পাচারের যে তথ্য বেরিয়ে এসেছে, তাতে অন্তত ৪৩ জন বাংলাদেশির নাম পাওয়া গেছে। এদের মধ্যে ৩৯ জন ব্যক্তি ও তাদের স্বার্থসংশ্লিষ্ট প্রতিষ্ঠানের হিসাব চিহ্নিত করেছে বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক, যাদের বিরুদ্ধে প্রাথমিকভাবে কর ফাঁকি দিয়ে বিদেশে বেনামি প্রতিষ্ঠান গড়ার প্রমাণ মিলেছে।
বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের ফিনান্সিয়াল ইন্টেলিজেন্স ইউনিট (বিএফইইউ) যাচাই-বাছাইয়ের পর প্রাথমিকভাবে এই ব্যক্তি ও প্রতিষ্ঠানের নাম চিহ্নিত করেছে।”
“সিআইডির তদন্ত সংশ্লিষ্ট দায়িত্বশীল কর্মকর্তা স্বীকার করেছেন, রিজার্ভ চুরির ঘটনায় বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংকের কয়েকজন কর্মকর্তা, আন্তর্জাতিক লেনদেনকারী প্রতিষ্ঠান সুইফট এবং ভারতীয় একটি সফটওয়্যার প্রতিষ্ঠান জড়িত।
সূত্র জানায়, রিজার্ভ চুরির ঘটনায় ৫ কর্মকর্তার গাফিলতি ও দায়িত্বহীনতা ছিল। তাদের অসতর্কতা এবং প্রযুক্তি জ্ঞানের অভাবেই হাতছাড়া হয় রিজার্ভের বিপুল অর্থ। এছাড়া আরও ২ জন গুরুত্বপূর্ণ দায়িত্বে থাকা কর্মকর্তা সরাসরি জড়িত।
তারা জেনেশুনেই রিজার্ভ চুরিতে সহায়তা করেছেন বলে তদন্তে প্রকাশ পেয়েছে। এছাড়া সুইফট ও ভারতীয় সফটওয়্যার প্রতিষ্ঠান ওয়ার্ল্ড ইনফরমেটিকস- বিপুল পরিমাণ অর্থ সরানোর ক্ষেত্রে কলকাটি নেড়েছে।”